Christopher Morton

Assistant Professor

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

PhD - Mechanical Engineering

University of Waterloo, 2014

MASc - Mechanical Engineering

University of Waterloo, 2010

BASc - Mechatronics Engineering

University of Waterloo, 2008

Contact information

Courses

Heat Transfer (ENME 471)

Fluid Mechanics II (ENME 495)

Aerodynamics (ENME 519/619)


Preferred method of communication

Email

Dr. Morton’s laboratory currently has doctoral, master’s and undergraduate projects available.

Please visit his website for more information.


Research

Research areas

  • Intelligent and autonomous systems
  • Aerospace systems
  • Aerodynamics
  • Flight
  • UAV technology development
  • Energy engineering
  • Sustainable sources
  • Wind
  • Processing and transport
  • Pipeline engineering
  • Unsteady aerodynamics
  • Flow-induced vibrations
  • Flow control
  • Sensor-based flow estimation and monitoring
  • Multi-phase flow systems
  • Aerodynamics in sports

Activities

Flow development and structural loading on complex bluff body geometries (doctoral thesis)

Many cylindrical structures (e.g., offshore risers, cables, towers, etc) undergo flow-induced periodic loading due to the vortex shedding phenomenon. To reduce the mean and fluctuating forces and avoid early fatigue failure of the structure, the flow development can be passively altered using geometrical modifications. This research project involved placing discontinuities in the diameter of a circular cylinder in order to alter the characteristics of the vortex shedding, which directly impacts the mean and fluctuating loading. Depending on the size of the discontinuity and the spacing between consecutive discontinuities, different flow topologies are observed. The flow visualizations below depict the vortex shedding in the wake of a dual step cylinder, illustrating four different topologies (or regimes) which may be encountered.

Reconstructing three-dimensional flow fields with planar measurement systems

For complex bluff body geometries, such as that of a dual step cylinder, the flow development is highly three-dimensional. To experimentally investigate such flows, measurements of the three-dimensional flow field are required. The presently available techniques of three-dimensional flow field measurement, for example, tomographic PIV or Holography, are expensive to implement and are not yet commonplace in experimental facilities worldwide. This study involved performing multi-plane PIV measurements in order to investigate the three-dimensional wake development of complex geometries. Two techniques of multi-plane PIV data analysis were employed to investigate the three-dimensional wake development of a dual step cylinder: (i) a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) based phase-averaging approach, and (ii) a pattern recognition based conditional averaging approach.

A new surface visualization technique for water: modified hydrogen bubble technique (journal article)

Hydrogen bubble technique is among the most common water flow visualization methods utilized in fluid mechanics research. It involves generating small, neutrally buoyant hydrogen bubbles on a thin metal wire via electrolysis. The wire is placed upstream of the model of interest, allowing the hydrogen bubbles to act as fluid tracers, as shown in Fig. 3. Surface visualization us a specific branch of flow visualization used for interpreting the flow development near walls based on surface patterns produces by changes in wall shear stress. Surface visualizations are often used to identify boundary layer separation, transition, and re-attachment on many different geometries. Prior to this work, no surface visualization techniques existed for water applications. It is now known that the hydrogen bubble technique can be modified and used for surface visualization as well!

Mitigating vortex induced vibrations of bluff bodies

Many bluff body structures in engineering applications, e.g., offshore oil risers, suspension bridge cables, components of aircraft landing gears, etc., undergo vortex induced vibrations. Depending on the environmental conditions, this can be a source of unwanted noise pollution, and may lead to fatigue failure with potentially dire consequences. While there are numerous passive methods of mitigating vortex induced vibrations on cylindrical structures, few studies have considered the use of step changes in diameter as a flow control tool. This study considers the effects of multiple step changes in diameter (multi-step cylinders) on the vortex shedding and vortex induced vibrations of uniform cylinders. The wake of a circular cylinder undergoing vortex induced vibrations has been studied experimentally as a starting point for this research. A 2P-type vortex shedding pattern is produced in the wake of the model (vortex pairs are shed from the cylinder in an alternating fashion as the cylinder vibrates), and can be seen in the following videos

Enhancing vortex induced vibrations of bluff bodies for energy harvesting

Most engineering applications aim to avoid or mitigate the unwanted effects of flow induced vibration. However, perhaps there is promise for the use of flow induced vibration as a technique for alternative energy harvesting. This project will consider the feasibility of using vortex induced vibrations (VIV) for energy harvesting. The aim is to find passive and active flow control strategies for enhancing VIV. The wake of a circular cylinder undergoing vortex induced vibrations has been studied experimentally as a starting point for this research. A 2P-type vortex shedding pattern is produced in the wake of the model (vortex pairs are shed from the cylinder in an alternating fashion as the cylinder vibrates), and can be seen in the following videos

Passive and active control of scour mechanisms on cantilevered circular cylinders

The primary mechanism of scour on cantilevered bodies is shear stress at the wall boundary produced by (i) the horseshoe vortex system, and (ii) the primary vortex shedding instability. This goal of this project is to develop relatively simple means of passively or actively controlling both the horseshoe vortex system and the vortex shedding. Specific engineering applications of this work include the scour of pipelines at river crossings, noise generation on aircraft wing-body junctions, the stability of bridge decks, piers, and other civil structures exposed to fluctuating hydrodynamic loading.


Biography

Dr. Morton completed his undergraduate degree in Mechatronics Engineering at the University of Waterloo in 2008. His master's and PhD were completed in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Waterloo with an area of specialization in Fluid Mechanics. During his PhD studies, he spent time at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in the Netherlands, gaining expertise with state of the art laser-based fluid flow measurement systems (specifically tomographic particle image velocimetry). His research focuses on solving problems in bluff body aerodynamics, fluid-structure interaction, flow control and energy harvesting.


Publications

Journal publications

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S., Scarano, F. (2016) “A tomographic PIV investigation of the flow development over dual step cylinders,” Physics of Fluids, 28(2), 025104.

McClure, J., Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2015) “Flow development and structural loading on dual step cylinders in laminar shedding regime,” Physics of Fluids, 27(6), 063602.

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2015) “Three-dimensional flow and surface visualization using hydrogen bubble technique,” Journal of Visualization, Vol. 18, Issue 1, pp. 47-58.

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2014) “Vortex dynamics in the turbulent wake of a single step cylinder,” Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 136, Issue 3, 031205.

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2014) “Vortex shedding from low aspect ratio dual-step cylinders,” Journal of Fluids and Structures, Vol. 44, pp. 251-269.

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2012) “An Experimental Investigation of Flow Past a Dual Step Cylinder,” Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 52, Issue 1, pp. 69-83.

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2010) “Vortex shedding in the wake of a step cylinder,” Physics of Fluids, Vol. 22, No. 083602, pp. 1-12.

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S., and Carvajal Mariscal, I. (2009) “Study of Flow over a Step Cylinder,” Journal of Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 15, pp. 9-14.
 

Conference papers

Daneshvar, S., Morton, C. (2016) “On the influence of end effects for stationary and vibrating circular cylinders,” 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Montreal, Canada.

Limacher, E., Morton, C., Wood, D. (2016) “Representation of real flows with dynamically equivalent concentrated point vortices," 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Montreal, Canada.

Morton, C., Saeedi, M., Martinuzzi, R. (2016) “Numerical simulation of laminar vortex shedding from cantilevered circular cylinders,” 24th  Annual Conference of the CFD Society of Canada, Kelowna, Canada.

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2014) “Analyzing three-dimensional wake vortex dynamics using time-resolved planar PIV,” 17th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal.

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S., Scarano, F. (2014) “Tomographic PIV investigation of the flow around dual step cylinders,” 2014 Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering International Congress, Toronto, Canada.

McClure, J., Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2014) “Diameter ratio effects on vortex shedding from dual step cylinders in cross-flow at low Reynolds numbers,” 2014 Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering International Congress, Toronto, Canada.

McClure, J., Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2014) “Aspect ratio effects on vortex shedding from dual step cylinders,” 1000 Islands Fluid Mechanics Meeting, May 30-June 1, Gananoque, Canada.

8.   Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2014) “Reconstructing 3D wake topology of complex cylindrical geometries using velocity field correlation,” 1000 Islands Fluid Mechanics Meeting, May 30-June 1, Gananoque, Canada.

9.    Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2013) “Turbulent vortex shedding from a dual-step cylinder: Influence of   diameter ratio and aspect ratio,” Proceedings of TSFP-8, August 27-30, Poitiers, France.

10.    Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2013) “Extracting dominant three-dimensional coherent structures from time-resolved planar PIV measurements in the wakes of cylindrical bodies,” Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry – PIV2013, July 1-3, Delft, The Netherlands.

11.    Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2013) “A dual step cylinder in cross-flow: wake and surface visualizations,” 1000 Islands Fluid Mechanics Meeting, April 26-28, Gananoque, Canada.

12.    Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2012) “Vortex shedding from low aspect ratio dual step cylinders,” Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, July 8-12, Rio Grande, Puerto         Rico.

13. Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2011) “Cross Flow over Cylinders with Two Stepwise Discontinuities in Diameter,” Proceedings of TSFP-7, July 28-30, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

14.   Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2010) “A combined experimental and numerical study of flow past a single step cylinder,” Proceedings of ASME 3rd Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, 1-5 Aug., Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

15. Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2010) “An experimental study of flow past a dual step cylinder,” Proceedings of ASME 3rd Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, 1-5 Aug., Montreal, Quebec,    Canada.

16.   Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2009) “Modeling Flow over a Circular Cylinder with a Stepwise Discontinuity,” 39th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, 22-26 Jun., San Antonio, Texas, USA.

17.   Morton, C., Carvajal Mariscal, I., Yarusevych, S. (2009) “Vortex Interaction in the Wake of a Step Cylinder,” 20th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena, 7-10 Jul., Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

18. Morton, C., Yarusevych, S., Carvajal Mariscal, I. (2008) “Numerical Study of Flow over a Step Cylinder,” 5th International Mechanical, Electrical and Systems Engineering Congress, 10-14 Nov., Mexico City, Mexico.
 

Conference presentations and other contributions:

Limacher, E., Morton, C., Wood, D. (2015) “Leading-edge vortex trajectories under the influence of Coriolis acceleration,” 68thAnnual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Boston, USA (Oral Presentation).

Morton, C., Saeedi, M., Martinuzzi, R. (2015) “Flow development over low aspect ratio cantilevered circular cylinders in the laminar shedding regime,” 68th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Boston, USA (Oral Presentation).

Yarusevych, S., Morton, C. (2014) “Reconstruction of the three-dimensional coherent structures in turbulent wakes using planar measurements,” 67th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 23-25, San Francisco, California, USA (Oral Presentation).

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2013) “Investigating three-dimensional wake topology of a low aspect ratio dual step cylinder with 2D PIV measurements,” 66thAnnual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 24-26, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA (Oral Presentation).

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S., Scarano, F. (2013) “3D Visualization of Wake Vortices,” 66thAnnual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 24-26, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA (Gallery of Fluid Motion Poster Entry).

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S., Scarano, F. (2013) “Tomographic PIV measurements in the wakes of cylindrical bodies,” 3rd Annual Departmental Thermo-Fluids Engineering Fall Meeting, Oct. 23, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada (Oral Presentation).

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2012) “Investigation of flow past a dual step cylinder: Influence of diameter ratio and aspect ratio,” 65thAnnual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 18-20, San Diego, California, USA (Oral Presentation).

Yarusevych, S., Morton, C. (2012) “Reconstructing dominant three-dimensional flow structures in the wake of bluff bodies using planar PIV measurements,” 65thAnnual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 18-20, San Diego, California, USA (Oral Presentation).

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2012) “Plethora of Vortices in the Wake of a Dual Step Cylinder,” 65thAnnual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 18-20, San Diego, California, USA (Gallery of Fluid Motion Poster Entry).

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2012) “Vortex shedding in the wake of a dual step cylinder,” 65thAnnual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 18-20, San Diego, California, USA (Gallery of Fluid Motion Video Entry and Article).

Yarusevych, S., Morton, C. (2011) “Vortex dislocations in the wake of a circular cylinder,” 64thAnnual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 20-22, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (Oral Presentation).

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2011) “Experimental investigation of vortex dynamics in the wake of a dual step cylinder,” 1st Annual Departmental Thermo-Fluids Engineering Fall Meeting, Oct. 24, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada (Oral Presentation).

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2010) “An experimental study of flow past circular cylinders with   stepwise discontinuities,” 63rdAnnual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 21-23, Long Beach, California, USA (Oral Presentation).

Morton, C. (2010) “Numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers,” Babcock and Wilcox Canada,Technical Report.

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2009) “Flow Development over a Circular Cylinder with a Stepwise Discontinuity,” 62ndAnnual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 22-24, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA (Oral and Poster Presentation).

Morton, C., Yarusevych, S. (2009) “Modeling Flow over a Circular Cylinder with a Stepwise Discontinuity,” Departmental Thermo-Fluid Seminar Series, Jun. 12, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada (Oral Presentation).


Awards

Professor Excellence Award - (3rd/4th Year) Mechanical Engineering (2018)

Teaching Achievement Award (2017-2018)

Students Union (SU) Teaching Excellence Award (honorable mention, 2017-2018)

Professor "Teaching Excellence" Award (3rd/4th Year) Mechanical Engineering (2017)

Teaching Achievement Award (2016-2017

Research Achievement Award (2016-2017)

Students Union (SU) Teaching Excellence Award (2015-2016)

Outstanding Teaching Performance Award (Faculty Award) (2016)

Professor "Teaching Excellence" Award (3rd/4th Year) Mechanical Engineering (2016)